National Library of the Netherlands

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Historical Documents of the Dutch Parliament 1814-1995

    On this website all historical documents of the Parliament of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, are digitally available and accessible through an extended search interface. This collection is a major source for the history of the Netherlands and its colonial empire in the 19th and 20th centuries. All documents can be viewed in their original lay-out, but are also available in full-text and can be downloaded in PDF format. The language of the website and the documents is Dutch.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Memory of the Netherlands

    The Memory of the Netherlands draws from the online collections of Dutch museums, archives and libraries. It contains images from collections of more than one hundred institutions and includes photographs, sculptures, paintings, bronzes, pottery, modern art, drawings, stamps, posters and newspaper clippings, in addition to video and sound recordings. The c.800,000 digital objects offer a unique and varied picture of the history and culture of the Netherlands. The Memory of the Netherlands is a completed project. No new content can be added, and only the current collections will be completed.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: 17th Century Dutch Pamphlets

    This Collection of digital items provides access to digitised seventeenth-century Dutch pamphlets. It is part of the Knuttel Collection: 1486-1853 at the National Library of the Netherlands, which is the most extensive pamphlet collection in the Netherlands. The thousands of pamphlets presented here constitute an essential source for understanding these tumultuous periods of history. They range from political apologia and manifestoes to tracts for and against predestination in theology. The collection reflects the history of the Netherlands in this period: the revolt against Catholic Hapsburg rule, the establishment of the Dutch republic and the emergence of the Netherlands as a naval power. "The Knuttel collection represents one of the most extraordinary resources for students of sixteenth and seventeenth-centuries politics, religion and print culture. It is marked by a striking coherence, and enhanced by a superbly scholarly Catalogue. It is a fundamental resource which deserves to be far better known and far more intensively studied."(Andrew Pettegree, University of St Andrews). The vast and rich pamphlet collection of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, as Catalogueed by W.P.C. Knuttel, is an indispensable resource for generations of historians of the early modern Netherlands. The online publication of these pamphlets will forever change the landscape of research and teaching in this field." (Henk van Nierop, Universiteit van Amsterdam).

  • National Library of the Netherlands: The Dutch East Indies in photographs, 1860-1940

    A number of partial collections, belonging to certain photographers, companies, institutions or individuals, have been selected on behalf of the Memory of the Netherlands. The collection consists of some 3000 photographs from the period between 1860 and 1940. Most were taken by professional photographers who took pictures of landscapes and street life, in addition to photographing houses and factories and taking portrait and group photos. Some even took to the road to record different facets of the Dutch East Indies. This collection of digital items comes from the KITLV (Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde) which is a leading centre for the study of the cultural and social sciences of Indonesia, Surinam, the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba. The years around 1900 marked the heyday of Dutch colonial rule in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). Territories outside Java were brought under Dutch rule and the economy was thoroughly modernised. Thought was also given to the future of the indigenous population and its impact on the relations between the Dutch and the native people.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Music manuscripts of Alphons Diepenbrock (1862-1921), Dutch composer

    This digital collection contains three sound recordings and music manuscripts by Alphons Diepenbrock (1862-1921). This collection, as his musical oeuvre, consists mainly of vocal works: songs, symphonic songs for orchestra and solo voice, a cappella choral works, choral works with accompaniment and musical-dramatic works. It gathers some compositions that include songs based on poems by Goethe, Heine and young Dutch poets such as Van Eeden, Perk and Verwey as well as the performance of his Te Deum, under the direction of Willem Mengelberg in 1902 that established his name as a composer amongst a wider audience. Users can listen to three songs by Alphons Diepenbrock (Es war ein alter König, Claire de lune and Mandoline) and can also view the manuscripts of the selected songs, as well as read the words of the relevant poems. Alphons Diepenbrock's music is among the highlights of Dutch music history. He involved the human voice in almost every composition. He aimed at harmony between the vocal part and the instrumental accompaniment, a perfect combination of word and sound.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Moluccan-Dutch history and culture in pictures

    This digital collection (nearly 10,000 images) comes from the Moluccan Historical Museum, which is a 'living monument' that provides an image of the history of the Moluccan community in the Netherlands. The photo collection of Museum Maluku provides an image of the Moluccans' history in the Netherlands and of the developments in the Moluccan community from 1951 up to the present. The collection also provides an insight into the relationship that the Netherlands and the Dutch Moluccans have with the Moluccas. In 1951, aprox. 12,500 Moluccans were transported from Java to the Netherlands. They were mostly soldiers who had served in the Dutch Colonial Army (KNIL), and their relatives.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Dutch poet Charles Beltjens

    The Charles Beltjens collection of the Sittard-Geleen city archive contains manuscripts of poetry; albums with clippings of poems printed in newspapers, alternated with hand-written lyrical poetry; magazines in which work was printed; works that were (probably) published on his own; newspaper clippings about his life and work; some photographs, and more. The entire collection takes up 64 inventory numbers, 60 of which are on display at the Memory of the Netherlands portal. The entire collection fits into a single box file. Charles Beltjens, who was from the Dutch province of Limburg started writing French poetry shortly after completing secondary school, around 1849. It brought him the admiration of famous writers and poets such as Victor Hugo and Sully Prudhomme, the first winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: 150 years of advertising in the Netherlands

    The collection includes over 9,500 posters, ranging from simple 19th century notices to richly decorated ones, dating from the Art Nouveau period, and sober Art Deco designs. The period after the end of World War II up to about 1995 is also extremely well represented. The poster collection is very varied and ranges from advertisements for Dobbelman soap products (c. 1890) to posters for the North Sea Jazz Festival, from a poster for the first so-called 'white week' of the department store De Bijenkorf (1919), to posters for Droste chocolate letters during the 1950s and advertisements by Veilig Verkeer Nederland (the Dutch Association for Road Safety) during the 1980s. In addition to posters, the collection includes many small printed items, totalling some 1,400 brochures, leaflets, price lists and the like, advertising such items as Calvé Delfrite cooking fat, Philips coffee mills, Tomado racks or advice from the Dutch Postal Services concerning the 1991 Christmas and New Year mail. The collection also includes over 700 advertisements, many of derived from the 'scrapbooks' that big advertisers kept. Of special interest is the sub-collection of close to 1,000 cinema slides. Radio and television commercials that were allowed on the air in the Netherlands from 1968 on, are sparingly represented, as are packagings and miscellaneous items, such as enamel signs, board games, displays etc.This collection of digital items comes from the ReclameArsenaal (Advertising Arsenal).

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Dutch collections Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts

    This is the richest collection of illuminated manuscripts in the Netherlands. Of the approximately 450 illuminated manuscripts, around 300 contain figurative images, whereas the remaining manuscripts are illuminated with painted decorations and/or pen work only. The total number of images amount to approximately 8,000. They take the form of painted miniatures, drawings, historicised initials or marginal scenes, and comprise all possible topics. The largest group is constituted by approximately 250 books of hours and prayer books, which are generally illustrated with scenes from the lives of Mary and Christ. Christian themes can further be found in various historical bibles, one of which illustrates the Old and the New Testament with over 500 scenes, and in liturgical manuscripts, which were intended for worship. Among the remaining illuminated manuscripts, world history, encyclopedias and works of literature figure largely.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Dutch Clandestine Photography during the German Occupation

    The collection consists of 4738 digitised negatives and album pages documenting the effects of the German Occupation. The collection of photographs taken during the German Occupation and administered by the Nederlands Fotomuseum mainly originates from the study and the 1995 publication of the same name: The Illegal Camera 1940-1945, Dutch Photography during the German Occupation by Veronica Hekking and Flip Bool. The photographs present an image of the effects of the German Occupation: starvation and deprivation, the persecution of the Jews, destruction and resistance. Some photographs became symbols of the distress people were enduring, whilst others long remained concealed from the general public. In spite of censorship, a ban and a shortage of materials, a great number of photographs were taken during the German Occupation. The photographers used their cameras at great risk to their own and other people’s life. They deeply felt the need to document the exceptional social circumstances and, without having any artistic pretension, they recorded the stark reality of what should not be forgotten.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Illegal Pamphlets and Brochures from the Netherlands

    The Memory of the Netherlands database offers a digital collection of pamphlets and brochures against the German occupation in Netherlands. It contains 1,000 pamphlets (about 1,750 pages) and 300 illegal brochures (about 5,000 pages). Most of these pamphlets were produced and circulated by the same underground group as illegal newspapers, e.g. Trouw (Faith), Vrij Nederland (Free Netherlands), Het Parool (The Motto) and De Waarheid (The Truth). Some of these pamphlets are special bulletins issued by these underground papers, but the contents are mostly unrelated. Examples of topics covered by the illegal pamphlets are: forced labour in Germany; the persecution of the Jews; the Royal Family and the black market. Like the pamphlets, the brochures were used to make a strong stand against the German occupation. Ultimately, the brochures had one common goal: to undermine the occupier's power and influence.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Dutch military Life

    The collection includes a selection of the most beautiful objects in the Army Museum's library/multimedia centre. The selection was made on the basis of four themes. A soldier's everyday life is illustrated by drawings and paintings of servicemen and their barracks. They depict a soldier's life governed by the many exercises and dominated by the regulations of life in the barracks. Ego documents tell us individual stories. War and mobilisation are also represented in the collection. The battles of the Eighty Years' War can be seen in prints. A book with wonderful colour illustrations pictures the Battle of Waterloo. Photographs provide an image of the mobilisation in 1940 and the police actions in what is now Indonesia. Around 1900, studying uniforms was a great hobby of (former) officers. Splendid books and series of prints illustrate the history of Dutch uniforms since the Middle Ages. Fortressess and battering rams illustrate the development of military architecture and equipment. Here, mathematical treatises and ground plans combine with prints of siege materiel and lithographs of guns and photographs of tanks in later years.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Sunken Treasures in the Netherlands

    The National Maritime Archaeology Collection consists of more than 20,000 objects, 4,500 of which have been entered into the Memory of the Netherlands portal. They include pictures and models of shipwrecks, glassware, weaponry and many other treasures. The selected shipwrecks illustrate 1600 years of maritime history. The objects shown are a good reflection of the complete National Maritime Archaeology Collection. Each find tells a story and provides us with tangible evidence of the way people lived long ago. Sunken ships are like time capsules. The condition of the vessel, its inventory, equipment and cargo allow us a special insight into a particular period of history.The National Heritage Agency is responsible, with others, for managing the Netherlands’ heritage both above and below the ground and under water.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Dutch fashion magazine De Gracieuse

    The 74 volumes of De Gracieuse from the period 1862-1936 were transferred to film by Microformat. In total, 32,000 pages of text and black-and-white images, 963 sewing patterns and 1200 colour images were filmed and subsequently digitised. De Gracieuse manifested itself from 1862 to 1936 as an attractive fashion and needlework magazine, aimed at a growing audience of fashion-conscious ladies. The fashion examples were usually inspired by the latest fashions from Paris. The patterns on display were suitable for all hours and occasions of the day. They varied from simple robes to fancy evening gowns, and from undergarments to travel clothing or sportswear. Men’s fashion barely figured in the magazine at all. Children’s fashion was usually covered in special issues. De Gracieuse also presented various examples of needlework, like crochet,, knitting and various embroidery techniques. The embroidery examples were intended for the embellishment of clothing and shoes, but also for various objects in and around the home.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Pioneer photography from the Dutch Indies

    The collection contains 4500 photographs pertaining to the former Dutch Indies in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. Professional photographers took pictures of a huge variety of subjects. The many travel and family albums tell mostly of "tempo dulu", the high days of colonialism. Javanese temples and other antiquities were photographed by the photographers Schaefer, Céphas and Van Kinsbergen. The photographer Kleingrothe devoted special attention to tropical agriculture. Lastly, Nieuwenhuis concentrated on the indigenous population, showing the various aspects of their culture. Worth mentioning is the album published on the occasion of the International Colonial Exhibition in Paris in 1931. Soon after the invention of photography in 1839, a number of photographers set out for the remote colony of the Dutch Indies. Commissioned by the Dutch government and various historical societies, they documented the Indonesian treasures photographically.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Historic atlases from the Netherlands

    This collection is a joint initiative of the British Library, the Koninklijke Bibliotheek . It gathers the Atlas Van der Hagen and the Atlas Beudeker which are important cultural sources for the life and art of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Here the term 'atlas' means more than a book with maps. It concerns collections of maps and topographic images along with portraits, prints of cityscapes, maps, emblems and mythological scenes. The Atlas Van der Hagen (circa 1690) contains topographical illustrations and prints from the entire world. The Atlas Beudeker (circa 1750) is devoted to the northern and southern Netherlands.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: The Dutch Labour Movement until 1918

    This collection contains over six thousand photographs, prints, posters, banners and objects that provide a picture of the Dutch labour movement from 1860 through 1918. Also included are six thousand pages of related text. Working conditions, the position of the woman, social legislation, voting rights, birth control, education, the temperance movement, war and peace. Around 1900 the Netherlands were the scene of enormous social conflict and change. The debates from those years have left their impact on society today. This collection of digital items comes from the IISG (Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis) in Amsterdam which is one of the largest documentation and research centres for social history in the world.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Dutch engravings and drawings from the eighteenth century

    The Atlas van Stolk is a collection of prints, drawings, photographs and posters pertaining to the history of the Netherlands. It is the only historical atlas that was kept up to date and is still being expanded. Out of the collection of approximately 100,000 objects, two collections have been digitized: one collection of eighteenth-century prints and drawings (180 objects) and a collection of political drawings: the Jordaan collection.They provide a picture of both the political history and the morals and customs of the eighteenth century. The material is diverse and familiar, with many coloured illustrations. The selection contains prints reflecting the rise of the patriot movement in the Republic, the fourth English War with the Battle of Doggersbank and the proclamation of the Batavian Republic.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: The Netherlands in portraits - early 20th century

    This collection of digital items contains more than 30,000 captioned portrait photographs. These photographs are taken from illustrated magazines that were published approximately during the first quarter of the twentieth century. Besides the numerous well-known personalities from that period, there are also many lesser-known individuals to be found. Consequently a postman with forty years of service behind him can be found next to a government minister, and a couple celebrating their golden wedding anniversary next to a rich industrialist. Because the collection covers a period of nearly a century ago, many people will be able to find their ancestors or close relatives here, or certainly people who were important to these ancestors. Generally speaking the collection contains quite a bit of detailed personal information. For some of the individuals in the 'collection' the biographical data is more extensive.The collection is provided by the Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie (CBG), the major information centre for genealogy, family history and heraldry, with an international reputation.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: The Dutch Baltic Trade in the period 1600-1850

    This collection has been built around the theme ‘The Dutch Baltic trade in the period 1600-1850’. For this purpose various materials have been digitised, ranging from maps to commemorative medals and from paintings to archival records. The objects illustrate various aspects of the Baltic trade. This collection of digital items has been put together at the initiative of the Directie der Oostersche Handel en Reederijen (The Directorate of the Baltic Trade and Shipping Companies) and the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (the National Library of the Netherlands). As the Directie doesn't own any collections apart from its own archive, the objects have been taken from more than thirty institutions in the Netherlands and abroad. The subject - the Baltic Trade - rather than one specific collection, has determined the choice of the objects.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Dutch, Flemish and other paintings from the Mauritshuis

    This collection of digital items is provided by the Mauritshuis museum, which is a world-famous museum for its collection of Dutch paintings dating from the seventeenth century, the Golden Age. It contains the well-known Rembrandt's Anatomic Lesson, The Bull by Potter and Vermeer's Girl with a Pearl Earring. However, the collection has a lot more to offer, such as paintings from Flanders (Memling, Rubens, Van Dijck) and Germany (Holbein, Cranach), as well as eighteenth-century Dutch paintings (Troost). Around 465 of the most important paintings from the museum can be found on this collection of digital items.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Monument photography in the Netherlands

    The collection of monument photographs selected for Memory of the Netherlands (more than 10.000 in total) consists of three sections: the oldest glass plate negatives in possession of the RDMZ from the period 1906-1915, mainly the work of G. de Hoog ; the Steenbergh collection: glass plate negatives, made by C.J. Steenbergh in the period 1910-1935 for the journal "Buiten" ; part of the collection of old prints, built up mainly through donations since the beginning of governmental conservation efforts in the Netherlands. More than 10,000 photographs illustrate the diversity of objects dealt with by monument conservation agencies between 1860 and 1947, and the varied ways in which these were photographed. Although Dutch monument photography didn’t become a seperate discipline until around 1910, monuments have been photographed since 1860. The occasional work of amateurs and photographers who were hired on location, was replaced from 1908 by a more systematic photographic inventory of the national monument heritage.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Colonial World Fairs - Dutch East Indies collection

    This digital collection is provided by the Tropenmuseum which is part of the Royal Tropical Institute. It gathers 5810 different objects: photographs, maps, prints, drawings, lithographies, amulets, artefacts, watercolor paintings, jewelery, costumes etc. classified under the following categories: cultures, countries, regions and places names. These objects were collected in the Netherlands East Indies between 1870 and 1940. At that time, the country now known as Indonesia was regarded unquestioningly as part of the Netherlands. The aim of the collection was to increase public knowledge about this exotic region. The theme of the sub-collection selected for the Memory of the Netherlands Database is the collective, national memory of the Dutch colonies seen from the perspective of the World Fairs. As the years passed, the way in which the Netherlands presented itself as a colonizer began to chance.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Atlases from the Dutch Maritime Museum

    This digital collection is provided by the Netherlands Maritime Museum which holds maritime art, crafts and other maritime-historical objects, as well as one of the largest cartographic collections in the world. This collection, one of the most important in the world, tells the story of the maritime past of the Netherlands. In the seventeenth century cartography in the Netherlands flourished. Dutch cartographers dominated almost the entire European market. This collection contains two cartographic highlights to be viewed in full, a land atlas and a maritime atlas. The Atlas Van Loon is a beautifully bound, extended version of Joan Blaeu's ‘Groote Atlas’ ('Large Atlas') from 1663-1665. Blaeu's Atlas comprised the entire known world at the time. In addition, the Atlas Van Loon contains Blaeu's town books and two maritime atlases by other cartographers. Johannes van Keulen's Zee-Fakkel ('Sea Torch') – published in many editions between 1681 and the end of the eighteenth century – contained in six volumes are all the maps a sailor could ever need. Almost all the maps are coloured in by hand.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Dutch War posters 1940-1945

    This digital collection is a joint initiative of the NIOD Instituut voor Oorlogs, Holocaust en Genocidestudies and the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. 5000 posters from the war years of 1940-1945 can be viewed. The subject matter is very diverse: German propaganda campaigns, Mussert and the NSB party, recruitment notices for the Waffen SS, instructions for protecting the population against air raids, leisure activities and German death sentences. At the time, mayors informed their citizens of new German measures. Placards were used to encourage resistance underground. Furthermore, the collection includes posters from the Dutch Indies while ruled by Japan. Posters were an important propaganda tool during World War II. The Germans were heavily invested in propagating the national socialist message in occupied Holland by using colourful placards. Signs, walls and advertising pillars were plastered with propaganda posters comprising eye-catching slogans and gripping images in order to influence public opinion.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage

    This collection of digital items is provided courtesy of the National Heritage Agency, responsible for maintaining the heritage of The Netherlands. The selection of 100 highlights allows the ICN to display some of the most beautiful objects in the collection. 50 paintings and 50 applied arts objects, half of which are old and half of which are modern. The selection contains numerous well-known works, including The Eavesdropper by Nicolaas Maes, Tulip fields with the Rijnsburg Windmill by Claude Monet, Marc Chagall’s Self-portrait with seven fingers, and Victory Boogie Woogie by Piet Mondrian. The applied arts section contains unknown treasures, such as Red teapot with polychromic decoration and set grenades from Dresden, a seventeenth-century Star cabinet inlaid with ivory, and a Playing Table designed by Mathieu Lauweriks. Over 2000 works by Theo van Doesburg, leading man of the De Stijl group, are also included. The objects in this collection are classified under the following categories: material, title and creator.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Dutch National Museum from Musical Clock to Street Organ

    This digital collection is owned by the Museum Speelklok (Museum Musical Clock). The collection consists of musical instruments from the 15th to 20th centuries along with relevant musical programmes and documentation. It gathers musical instruments in an overwhelming variety of types and sizes: musical clocks announce the striking of the hour with preludes on bells, organ pipes or strings; musical boxes play their tuned steel combs from pinned brass cylinders or steel discs; pianolas and orchestrions play their music as programmed on wooden, brass-pinned cylinders and perforated paper rolls; barrel organs play their music from pinned wooden barrels; and large street organs, fairground organs and dancehall organs play from folding cardboard music books. The 71 objects in this collection are classified under the following categories: location, keyword and creator.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Indonesia independent - Dutch photographs 1947-1953

    This collection of digital items is provided by the Nederlands Fotomuseum (Netherlands Museum for Photography). It consists of more than 4500 photographs and album pages by the photographers and friends, Cas Oorthuys and Charles Breijer, who both travelled to Indonesia independently in 1947 and captured various stages of the decolonisation process. The collection also comprises photographs by Lex de Herder, who was sent to Indonesia as a conscript at the beginning of 1949. There he worked as a radio announcer and later as a photographer. These photos show the tragic decolonisation process: the independence declaration was followed by an exhausting political and military struggle that continued for four years. Only under great international pressure did The Netherlands transfer sovereignty on the 27th of December 1949.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Atlantic World: the Dutch in America

    This collection is a joint initiative of the Library of Congress and the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. It presents an overview of the ties that existed between The Netherlands and North America dating back to the seventeenth century. The collection consists of 70 objects of extremely diverse materials: books, magazines, maps and documents – all taken from both of these important national libraries. Several different periods are represented. Digitised material is available on the emergence of New Amsterdam (New York), emigration during the 19th and 20th centuries, the Dutch role in the American Revolution and the phenomenon of Holland-mania. Complete rare contemporary books describe the complicated political situation in ‘New Netherland’. Unique manuscripts and drawings depict the personal experiences and impressions of travellers and of the new inhabitants of the New World. Maps show how limited the knowledge of the region actually was.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: General Dutch Press Photograph Agency, 1945-1969

    This collection comprises 1900 photographs which provide a good overview of Van Meerendonk's specialties: photographs of Dutch celebrities at home, international stars visiting The Netherlands, everyday occurrences on the streets of Amsterdam, and sports photography. Founder, owner, director and often sole photographer of the Algemeen Hollands Fotopersbureau (General Dutch Photo Press Agency), Ben van Meerendonk documented changes as they occurred in The Netherlands during the 1950s and 1960s. His photography has recently been rediscovered and has once again gained popularity. The photographs originate from the 75,000 negatives housed as part of the Ben van Meerendonk/Algemeen Hollands Fotopersbureau Collection. This digital collection is provided courtesy of the IISG in Amsterdam, one of the largest documentation and research centres for social history in the world.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: The Big Dutch Flood of 1953 photographed

    During the night of the 31st of January 1953, a flood disaster hit South-West of The Netherlands. This digital collection comprises all photographs, approximately 1742, shot in February 1953 during the flood disaster. Works by photographers Dolf Kruger, Ed van der Elsken, Aart Klein, Kees Molkenboer, Cas Oorthuys and Ed van Wijk have been included. This photo collection is of great historical value, but it is a mistake to think that the photographs provide an objective view of the disaster. Digitisation of the complete collection clearly demonstrates that each photographer provides his or her own take and own subjective view of the event. These points of view and moments captured are based on personal choice and often the focus is on subject matter that appealed to the photographer or his patron (for instance, the numerous horses in the photograph by Ed van der Elsken). The fiftieth commemoration of the Big Flood inspired the Nederlands Fotomuseum (Dutch Museum for Photography) to digitise all photo negatives on this particular subject. Out of the numerous floods that have swept the Netherlands, this was the first to be documented photographically on a large scale. Journalists, photographers and filmmakers travelled to the disaster area in hordes.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: 1975-2001: Dutch History Photo Commissions

    This digital collection is provided courtesy of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. The main collection currently contains more than 2700 photos, of which 2200 are the work of 41 photographers, can be viewed online and cover 25 different themes. The Rijksmuseum initially started with the commission of these photos in 1975 to evoke a portrait of an era in The Netherlands that would survive time itself. Unemployment, elections, asylum seekers, recreation, seven-year-old children and the Royal Family are just some of the subjects captured over the last 25 years under the general theme of: “What happens today will be history tomorrow.” Lastly, the objects in this collection are classified under the following categories: events, names and subjects.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Maastricht earthenware decorations from the Netherlands, 1836-1969

    In the corporate archives of Sphinx and Société Céramique, housed at the Sociaal Historisch Centrum voor Limburg ( in Maastricht, a veritable treasure trove of pattern books has been preserved. This digital collection contains almost 18.000 decors (designs for decorations), that are part of the historical corporate archives of the present firm Sphinx Sanitair BV. The designs, used between c. 1850 and 1969, document an important aspect of the earthenware production of one of the earliest large-scale industries in the Netherlands. The majority of these designs originate from Petrus Regout's company, that went by the name 'Sphinx' from 1899, and also from the Société Céramique. These two firms later merged in 1958. The collection also contains a few designs from other companies such as the NV Faïencerie de Nimy in Nimy-les-Mons, Belgium. These pattern books show the numerous potteries collected as well as the various designs that could be applied to earthenware products.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Memory in Motion: Dutch postwar film, radio and tv productions

    This collection of digital items is provided courtesy of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, the largest archive of audiovisual heritage in The Netherlands. Explore over 2,000 pictures in this collection and venture on a journey through fifty years of broadcasting history. The collection offers a fascinating account of the developments and processes that swiftly transformed The Netherlands into a modern society after 1945. The period of reconstruction and the growing influence of television, which forced authority figures to adopt a different way of communicating with their constituency, is depicted. So too are the attempts to help ordinary people find their way in this new society. The collection has been divided into five themes: reconstruction in the 1940s and 1950s; politics and society; home life, work and leisure; public broadcasting; and a multicultural society.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Promotional photographs of Dutch pop music

    This digital collection of promotional photographs offers a good overview of Dutch pop music through the years. From the Blue Diamonds to Junkie XL, and from Golden Earring to Osdorp Posse. The collection also charts the development of promotional photographs. Explore snapshots made by record companies showing the performers, to pictures of the bands during the 1970s and the computer-enhanced photographs of today. Promotional photographs have a special place within pop music photography. These photographs are important to convey the image of the band or performer. Images are used for interviews in newspapers or magazines, for illustrations in programme booklets for music venues, and of course for the adorning of record or CD covers.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Dutch Stork photo collection, 1868-1968

    One hundred years of company photography in 10,000 pictures. From the very first machines from 1868 up to the very last from around 1968, many examples are available of the products made by Machine Factory Stork Brothers and Co. in Hengelo (Ov.). The photographs illustrate the production of pumps, kettles, turbines, diesel engines, ventilators and complete installations for sugar factories and power plants. But the collection also highlights the attention that Stork, known for his progressive policies as an employer, gave to social circumstances in and around the factory. These include photographs of company parties and anniversaries, but especially the construction of an entirely new housing project for employees, industrial insurance boards, schools, childcare and social and medical care receive a great amount of attention. The machine factory 'Stork Brothers and Co.' in Hengelo (Ov.) was officially founded in 1868 and it became one of the largest machine factories in The Netherlands.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Picture postcards of the Dutch Royal Family

    Fourteen albums have now been unearthed and adapted for the online exhibition. Explore over 4000 picture postcards from 1880-1966, including official portraits, glamourous photos, snapshots and press photographs of royal visits both within The Netherlands and abroad. Every picture from the collection, from official portraits to family snapshots, reveals an almost blind admiration for the royal family. The collection shows the changing relationship between the monarch and the people. It clearly does not provide a well-balanced overview of the Dutch royal family's history. In 1959, the Dutch National Library acquired this remarkable collection - Picture Postcards of the Dutch Royal Family. The collection came about because of two ladies with a fascination for European royalty. These ladies collected thousands of photographs of European monarchs and their families for over half a century.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Dutch Catholic life in images

    The Katholiek Documentatie Centrum has an online Catalogue in which the image collections 'Catholic Life in Images' (KLiB) from the library and the archive are available for the general public. A large part of the image collection (about 85,000 images) that is preserved in the KLiB department has been selected and digitised for The Memory of the Netherlands online portal. The collection includes photographs, picture postcards, devotional and commemorative prints, posters, diplomas, certificates, cards, pennants, maps, wall charts, drawings and caricatures. This varied collection sketches an impressive portrait of Catholic life in The Netherlands from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the present.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Jewish portraits and images from the Netherlands around 1900

    This collection of picture postcards, photographic portraits, graphics and prints offers an image of the diversity of the Jewish people in The Netherlands. Most cards illustrate Amsterdam's Jewish district where a substantial number of Dutch Jews resided. However, there are also two hundred cards from 'the Mediene', the Jewish communities in provinces outside of Amsterdam. Images of villages and cities often showing a synagogue or Jewish cemetery also form part of the collection. The portrait photographs (glass negatives) were made by Studio Jacob Merkelbach, a place where both Dutch celebrities and the affluent citizenry were photographed. We find portraits of the artists Chaya Goldstein, Abel Herzberg, and actor Louis de Vries. Merkelbach's pictures offer a fascinating account of Amsterdam's Jewish elite in the years from 1915 to 1940. The collection of historical objects and graphics also includes: magazine and book illustrations, portraits, graphics and drawings by Jewish artists or with a Jewish subject, cartoons, topographical images and historical documents. Other items from daily life are also on display, for example, bookmarks, bookplates, seals, advertising material, product packaging and sheet music.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Dutch women in action!

    Nearly 3800 Dutch posters from the collection of the International Information Centre and Archives for the Women's Movement. This Posters Collection beautifully illustrates the development of the Dutch women's movement. The oldest posters are an important depiction of the first feminist wave - the National Exhibition of Women's Labour that took place in 1898. However, the collection mainly deals with the second feminist wave. Together, the posters are a striking illustration of one of the biggest social changes of the twentieth century - the emancipation of both women and men. The collection includes nearly all topics involving women and the position of women, from economic independence to sexual violence, and from racism to gay rights. Topics covered in the collection are as follows: politics, economic independence, health and body, migrant and refugee women; culture and science, governmental emancipation policy etc. Whoever wishes to obtain an overview of the women's movement in The Netherlands can view these posters as part of the Iinternational Women's Day'. Every year on the 8th of March, women organise festivities to express the solidarity of women around the world and to improve the situation of women.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: The Niestadt photo collection of the Dutch Zijpe Museum

    The brothers, Willem and Lubèrt Niestadt, were press photographers for the Schager Courant from 1940 until 1980. A selection of their 4000 photographs has been made available by courtesy of the Memory of the Netherlands portal. Important subjects in this collection are: Schagen in wartime (approximately 200 photographs); the flooding of the Wieringermeer in 1945 (approximately 400 photographs); the West-Frisian (folkloric) markets in Schagen (approximately 650 photographs); the Easter cattle exhibition in Schagen and agrarian images from the region (approximately 500 photographs); trotting races - short track races (approximately 150 photographs). In addition to the above mentioned categories, there is a collection of photographs that together offers an image of life in the Schagen region during the period of 1940 to 1980. Various older pictures that were taken by Niestadt family members from 1875 onwards have also been included. Besides the black and white 35mm photographs, the collection also contains 6x6cm images, panorama photographs and colour photos.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Archeological finds from the Netherlands

    The earliest history of the Netherlands is documented within this collection through a series of archeological objects from a collection at the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden (National Museum of Antiquities) in Leiden. The objects in this collection were found during archeological excavations in the Netherlands. The oldest object is more than 250.000 years old and the most recent dates from around 1600. The objects and the location where they were found tell us something about the early dwellers in the region and their way of life. This selection contains descriptions of more than 9700 objects from the Prehistoric period, the Roman period and the Middle Ages, all discovered in the Netherlands. Most of these objects are stored at the National Museum of Antiquities itself. However, the digitised versions are available via our portal.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Broadside ballads from the Netherlands

    This digital collection of folk songs and broadside ballads is a joint initiative of the Meertens Instituut and the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. It provides access to over 7000 broadsides and leaflets containing nearly 15,000 songs. Both the song sources (broadsides, leaflets, etc.) and the individual songs have been included within this collection. The sheet music includes folk songs as well as light music, new lyrics and old hits, popular songs and curiosities. Some of the most popular melodies included are: 'Wie Nederlands bloed'; 'Al is ons prinsje'; 'Wilhelmus / Prinsenmars'; 'Henri's drinklied'; 'De wereld is in rep en roer' etc. Users can listen to these popular melodies with their original lyrics, sung by a host of contemporary singers (Freek de Jonge, Nico van de Meel, Maarten van Roozendaal, Mieke Stemerdink and others). The full song lyrics are presented as images rather than as full digital texts. You can search the text by the first two lines of a song or you can search by keyword or genre. You can also search by song title, chorus, author, composer, name of melody, words within the title, city of publication, publisher's name, printer, singer, vendor, and by year or century of publication.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Seven centuries of Dutch Zuiderzee history

    This digital collection comprises prints, drawings and embroidery samples that illustrate the tale of seven centuries of Zuiderzee history in eight different themes: 1. Dikes, drainage mills and land reclamations - the people living in communities surrounding the Zuiderzee battled against the water; 2. Whaling was a dangerous but sometimes profitable industry and is represented by implements and prints; 3. Villages such as Marken, Hindeloopen and Volendam; 4. The hall of ships in the Zuiderzeemuseum contains an extensive collection of wooden fishing boats and yachts; 5. North Sea fishing for herring brought prosperity and during 1630 this turned Enkhuizen into the largest fishing town in Holland; 6. During 1900 AD Zuiderzee fishing flourished, with a fleet of about 2000 ships, both large and small; 7. Due to the importance of water transport a boat was developed for each different water route; 8. Experience the atmosphere of the Peperzolder (Pepper Attic) where the Dutch East India Company stored their valuable merchandise. The images within this collection vary from traditional dress worn by people from the island of Marken, to a hand-painted sledge and maritime maps. The collection comprises the permanent displays of the indoor section of the Zuiderzeemuseum and includes objects from other similar museums.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: The political cartoons of Dutch cartoonist Van Straaten

    2000 political drawings by Peter van Straaten held at the Persmuseum make up a visual chronicle of the Netherlands in the years from 1969 to 2001. Peter van Straaten (1935, Arnhem) is a Dutch cartoonist. He is the winner of the 1983 Stripschapprijs.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Liber Amicorum of the Dutch writer A.L.G. Bosboom-Toussaint, 1882

    Mrs Bosboom-Toussaint is still looked upon as one of the best 19th century Dutch authors. The Liber Amicorum, which the Alkmaar born writer A.L.G. Bosboom-Toussaint received in 1882 on her 70th birthday, has been preserved and digitised within the scope of Metamorfoze, the national programme for the preservation of the paper heritage in The Netherlands. The Liber Amicorum Collection includes 684 loose leaves with a bound register mentioning the names of all those who had contributed to it. The list of contributors to this 'book from friends' reads like a 'Who's Who' of Dutch cultural society during the 19th century. The loose leaves are divided into two sections. The first one, in a separate brown cover, is filled with drawings, aquarelles, photographs, calligraphies and musical compositions. The second section, which has no cover, mainly includes written texts. Thirteen leaves of the Liber Amicorum contain sheet music, twelve of which are possibly original and which were composed especially for the purpose of the book. Not only can you view these sheets of music but you can also listen to them as audio files.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Surinam mapped out

    This collection of digital items is provided by the Special Collections Department at the University of Amsterdam. The collection comprises books on Surinam including travel reports and manuals for planters that date back to the 17th century. Explore the first glossaries and descriptions of the country and its inhabitants and a large collection of maps. A few hundred pages with maps, topographic maps and charts of Surinam and Guiana are also included. These range from around 1600 to the present day. The history of Surinam is well-documented in hundreds of books and picture books, as well as in prose and poetry. Writers bear witness to life in Surinam and to the migrant culture at the time, both in Dutch and in Sranantongo. In addition to historical and literary works, the collection includes newspapers, brochures, almanacs, textbooks and children’s books - all which tell the story of everyday life in the colony. Users can also explore a large number of Surinamese publications, which are rare because of their limited circulation. Various pamphlet-like publications depicting Surinam’s independence are also included in the collection. Lastly, users can explore twentieth century photographic books that illustrate Surinamese architecture, agriculture, industry and that also include the portraits of many Surinamese people.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: It's showtime! Dutch puppetry collection

    Some 4,000 posters, photographs and prints illustrate the development of the international puppet- and object theatre from the nineteenth century onwards.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: 16th century graphic art from the Northern and Southern Netherlands

    Discover sixteenth century graphic art from the Northern and Southern Netherlands in this exceptional wide print collection from the Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum. The collection is characterised by the excellent quality of the prints, the diversity of techniques applied and the choice of Renaissance subject matter. The collection includes prints featuring the human body, buildings, landscapes, portraits and ornaments by famous and relatively unknown artists. Artists featured include: Lucas van Leyden, Maerten van Heemskerck, the families Galle and Sadeler, Jan Saenredam, Dirck Volckertsz. Coornhert, Hendrick Goltzius and Claes Jansz. The diversity of the great masters, the subjects and techniques on display here gives the viewer an overwhelming impression of the number and variety of prints produced in the Netherlands during the course of the 16th century.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: The Dutch Delta Works as seen by Aart Klein

    This collection comprises 1669 negatives selected from around 4000 shots. Aart Klein, who documented the catastrophic consequences of the 1953 flood disaster, photographed the Delta area between 1957 and 1983 to demonstrate the conception and construction of the Delta Works. In 1963, his photographs of this area appeared in the Delta publication (for example, ‘Poort van Europa’ - Delta, Gateway to Europe). ‘Stromenland in beweging’ (Delta. Water-country in Movement), was published four years later. Aside from the Delta Works, the photographer portrays the landscape of the province of Zeeland and its people. As S.J. Groenman wrote in his introduction to Delta. Stromenland in beweging: ‘The portrayal of the Delta area presents a classic theme: innovative dynamics versus old forms. This collection of digital items is available courtesy of ‘Nederlands Fotomuseum.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: The art of knowledge: Dutch educational botanical wall charts 1870 - 1960

    A selection taken from the 2300 printed and handmade wall charts from collections housed at the Universities of Groningen, Amsterdam, Utrecht, Delft and Wageningen, has now been made available via the Memory of the Netherlands online portal. The subjects of these charts vary from obstetrics to art history, but by far the greater part – almost half of the total – is related to botany. The collection of charts is a fair sample of the huge array of educational botanical diagrams housed at Dutch universities. The brightly coloured flowers and stylised microscopic reproductions make for beautiful pictures. It is worth mentioning that most of the Latin names of the plants have been translated into Dutch specifically for Dutch users of the portal. Lastly, these charts provide us with an extensive body of knowledge, research and academic studies relating to the field of botany during 1870-1960 in The Netherlands.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Colour separation images by Dutch photographer Bernard F. Eilers

    Bernard F. Eilers was dubbed a ‘colour magician’. Around 1935, he created the photographic colour separation technique called foto-chroma, for which he became famous across the globe. In this collection, Eilers’s old analogue technique was digitally simulated. The result is a collection of spectacular colour prints originating from a period mostly associated with black-and-white photography. The colour prints seen here were created by digitising 927 glass negatives from the Amsterdam Municipal Archives. This collection demonstrates how three separate colour negatives together form a single picture. The final result is a beautiful colour picture. However, the hues of the newly coloured images are not always quite the same as those Eilers himself chose. However, such colour deviations can be corrected in a digital manner.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Old Dutch children's books and penny prints

    The collection of the ‘Stadsarchief en Athenaeumbibliotheek Deventer’, available via The Memory of the Netherlands portal, includes some 350-year-old children’s books from Overijssel. These books date from the 17th century to halfway through the 20th century. The collection itself holds 175 historic folk and children’s prints from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. However, most of the children’s books included in the collection were published between 1850 and 1950. The prints in the collection are also known as ‘cent’ prints, because they were sold on the street for a cent or half a cent in previous centuries. The text of these cent prints often had a moralising undertone. In fact, these prints were the forerunners of the comic book prints we know today. The collection of folk and children’s prints includes many single copies. These books and prints included in the collection are of great importance for historic research in the fields of social history, folk culture and education. Visitors will enjoy browsing at leisure through these old children’s books, many of them adorned with brightly coloured illustrations.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Top items from the Dutch Literary Museum

    Thirteen top items have been selected for this collection of digital items and these items will acquaint you with a small but representative section of the Literary Museum’s collection, a collection that gathers records and collections of Dutch-speaking writers and publishing houses from 1750 onward. The collection of digital items offers free access to famous poems, such as Herman Gorter’s epic poem ‘Mei’ popular novels like ‘De stille kracht’ by Louis Couperus and Herman Heijermans’s much talked about ‘Op hoop van zegen’.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Modern manuscripts from the National Library of the Netherlands

    Numerous popular items have been selected from the Collection of Modern Manuscripts for The Memory of the Netherlands portal. In fact, this collection of digital items features nine handwritten documents, either written by or written about the following authors: Jacques Perk, Herman Gorter, Jan Engelman, Hendrik Marsman and René Rademacher Schorer. Furthermore, these digitised pages may be viewed as individual objects, but it is also possible to browse through the actual manuscripts. For example, explore the original version of the famous poem ‘In den Zwarten Nacht’, or read the musings of poet Hendrik Marsman.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Pamphlets and offprints from the Dutch Multatuli Museum

    This collection features publications authored by and about Multatuli (the pen name of Eduard Douwes Dekker). The collection contains approximately 600 pamphlets and offprints. It may be broadly divided into three categories: Multatuli’s own publications; publications about Multatuli and publications regarding other subjects from 1835-2000. The collection also features some instalments of Multatuli's ideas. Many of these instalments are the original publications and are thus extremely rare. The collection also holds rare pamphlets of often obscure publishing houses - socialist or anarchic in nature. A number of pamphlets contain notes in Multatuli’s handwriting, or in the handwriting of others. You can also explore several of his famous ideas and skirmishes captured on paper between Multatuli and his adversaries. The original documents are housed at the Multatuli Museum in Amsterdam.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Dutch Children's books from the Rotterdam library

    Rotterdam Library owns this fantastic collection of old children’s books. 300 books from this collection have been made digitally available via the Memory of the Netherlands portal. The selection criteria are defined by diversity in periods, publishers, authors, illustrators and genres. This has resulted in a cross section of children’s books published between 1840 - 1950. It offers works from forgotten authors as Jan Feith, who wrote De avonturen van Flip en zijn speurhond and other books, and publishing houses that are no longer in existence, such as D. Bolle in Rotterdam and Valkhoff in Amersafoort. Moreover, books of historic value were added to the collection. For instance, children’s books which are set in the former Netherlands East Indies, like M. Ovink-Soer’s De Canneheuveltjes in Indië. But also a book of a questionable political sort, like Moeder vertel eens wat van Adolf Hitler by J. Haarer. When it comes to children’s books, the illustrations are often of paramount importance. Users can find the drawings of well-known illustrators such as Jan Rinke and Hans Borrebach.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Alexander Ver Huell, Dutch illustrator

    This digital collection originates from the Ver Huell Collection of the Leiden Regional Archives. The collection is quite varied, both with regard to items and content. Expect to find lithographs of Ver Huell’s drawings published in book form, accompanied by explanatory texts. These drawings originate from different periods in Ver Huell’s life and reflect, to a large extent, the frame of mind of the artist. His early work is considered more light-hearted than his later work, which appears more sombre in nature. Humour is also present in his works entitled, 'Zoo zijn er!' and 'Op het ijs'. After 1850, this humour gave way to idealism and melancholy. Publications with titles such as 'Zijn er zoo?' (1851), 'In den rook des tijds' (1856) and 'Tydspiegel-phantasien' (1858) are from this period.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Dutch tourist posters

    Expect to find 180 posters, published between 1926 and 1998, available via The Memory of the Netherlands web portal. Posters depict windmills, tulips, clogs, the classic Dutch images that come to the minds of tourists when they think of Holland. For decades, Dutch tourist organisations have been using these iconic images in their marketing campaigns. Although mills and tulips are still by far the most popular symbols of Holland, they are now utilised together with many other more modern symbols that appeal to a new generation of tourists and business travellers. Lastly, please note that objects in this collection are classified by year and title. This digital collection is a joint initiative of the 'Nederlands Bureau voor Toerisme & Congressen' and the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Dutch picture books from 1810 to 1950

    A total of six hundred and fifty Dutch picture books from 1810-1950 are brought together in this collection courtesy of the National Library of The Netherlands. The collection comprises everything from Robinson Crusoe to Tielse Flipje (a cartoon mascot on ‘De Betuwe’ jam pot labels), and from old nursery rhymes to fairytales by the Brothers Grimm - there is something for everyone in this collection. All picture books are classified according to numerous themes and categories: a child’s life; ‘come and have a look!’; reality; fantasy; literature, art, music etc. These themes have value, not only for the individual reader, but also for society as a whole. Explore the many generations of Dutch children’s stories and the morals and values therein contained. The children’s books in this collection serve as an indispensable account of an ever-changing Dutch society.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Paintings of the Dutch Rijksmuseum

    The Rijksmuseum’s collection of paintings is famous throughout the world and it encompasses more than 5500 paintings. The collection offers an overview of Dutch painting from the late Middle Ages to the mid-twentieth century. The emphasis lies in seventeenth century art, with masterpieces by Rembrandt, Johannes Vermeer, Frans Hals, Pieter Saenredam, Jan Steen, Jacob van Ruisdael and many others. However, other masters from outside of The Netherlands, such as Rubens and Veronese, are equally represented.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Dutch book illustrators Jan and Casper Luyken

    The Luykens are regarded as the most important book illustrators of their time. They illustrated subjects across a variety of fields: medicine, biblical history, shipbuilding, draughtsmanship, Dutch history etc.The entire Luyken Collection from the Amsterdam Museum can be viewed online. The collection encompasses more than 12,000 loose prints (including some fragments from books), some 1150 drawings and about 1000 volumes. Altogether, the Luykens created almost 4,500 different prints as illustrations for at least 500 different books. The collection features at least one copy of almost every print, be it a loose print or a book illustration. However, this does not apply to the drawings - assuming that a preparatory sketch exists for every print. Furthermore, a few of the book titles are also missing. Where possible, existing gaps in the collection are continuously being filled.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: The Dutch state treasury chest

    Viewers of this digitised collection can compare their own financial position with that of their ancestors who, in the not so distant past, were even taxed for wearing a wig, using soap or salt, playing cards and riding a horse or a bicycle. The Tax and Customs Museum is seen as the fiscal memory or even the treasure chest of Dutch fiscal history in the Netherlands. This museum, also called 'Belasting & Douane' Museum (Tax and Customs Museum), has around 500 objects in its collection. These objects illustrate more than 15 centuries of tax and customs systems in the country. The collection includes pottery, documents, postcards, locks etc. Alva’s ‘tenth penny’ from the 16th century and documents about the creation of income tax and wealth tax by the Minister of Finance, N.G. Pierson, at the end of the 19th century are also represented. Furthermore, changes in the system of taxation can bring about changes in the social structure, or vice versa.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Felix Tal´s European fan collection

    This collection contains 145 beautifully decorated fans which illustrate the development of this beautiful object from the 17th to the 19th century, with special emphasis on 18th and 19th century European fans. The collection includes fans of all shapes, themes and made of a variety of different materials. The majority are 'fixed screen' fans, folding fans and brisé fans. Because of the diversity of materials employed (ivory, mother-of-pearl, tortoise shell, precious metals, fabrics, paper, parchment) and the many design techniques utilised, the fans are truly valuable examples of artisanal craftsmanship. The representations on the screens tell us a lot about the way people lived and thought during earlier centuries as each period is illustrated by representations that were popular at that time. Mythology, of course, was a much-loved theme. Allegorical and pastoral illustrations, love scenes as well as biblical representations were also included.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Alba amicorum from the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, National Library of the Netherlands

    What makes this collection so special is the age of the books (from the 16th and 17th century), their beautiful construction and excellent condition. They also contain a wealth of depictions of coats of arms and other detailed illustrations, some of which were made by local Frisian artists. Another very special feature of the collection is that it demonstrates the keeping of such an album as a general family activity in The Netherlands from the 16th and 17th century. The albums of Homme, Juw and Pieter van Harinxma are good examples. They offer unique insight into the past by means of the entries made within in these albums. Furthermore, an album amicorum is a booklet whereby the owner collected contributions of friends, acquaintances or famous contemporaries he/she knew. This kind of album was mainly popular in academic circles and originated during a period in which many students did not confine themselves to one particular university, but made a so-called academic 'grand tour' which led them to universities throughout major Europe centres. The album was a loyal companion during these trips and was filled with the contributions of professors who taught them and by fellow students and friends.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Early Dutch Books Online

    Early Dutch Books Online provides full-text access to over two million pages of 10,000 books about the Dutch language from the period 1781-1800. The books deal with history, politics, theology and literature. The emphasis is on Dutch material that is printed in The Netherlands itself or on books dealing with The Netherlands as a subject. The collection contains books in Dutch, French and Latin. Early Dutch Books Online is a collaboration of the Royal Library of the Netherlands and the university libraries of Amsterdam and Leiden. Additionally, books from the Special Collections of these libraries have been digitised and made available on word level.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: General Catalogue Koninklijke Bibliotheek, National library of The Netherlands

    What will you find in this catalogue? Descriptions of the entire KB-collection: books; journals; manuscripts; newspapers; digital resources; maps; sheet music. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items (2,500,000 books or 48 km) in the collection are books. The collection contains almost the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. The KB also houses special collections including: mediaeval and modern manuscripts, old and rare books, pamphlets, book bindings, marbled papers and books on the history of paper, chess and draughts, newspapers, cookery books and children's books.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Cookery books Collection

    The Koninklijke Bibliotheek has an extensive collection of cookbooks, both Dutch and foreign. Within this collection, which consists of books from thirteen countries, the French kitchen occupies the position of prominence. The oldest specimen is François Pierre de la Varenne, Nouveau cuisinier françois ou l'école des ragouts (Lyon 1727), a reprint of the famous book of 1651. The collection has been regularly expanded since then and now consists of a few thousand items. The emphasis is on cookery books that provide an impression of regional and global diversity. Most of the works in the collection are from the 19th and 20th centuries. Also represented are special cookery books, manufacturers' cookery books and publications devoted to wine and other drinks. With the establishment of the Deposit Library, the Dutch language works have been almost completely represented since the seventies.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Dutch books in translation (NBiV)

    The collection Dutch Book in Translation (Nederlands Boek in Vertaling - NBiV) focuses on books originally written in Dutch and translated into other languages. It contains about 28,500 titles. Dutch books in translation form an important part of the heritage as they are witness to the circulation of Dutch literature and culture around the world. The emphasis is on language, literature, culture and history. One of the oldest items is a 1693 German translation of Balthasar Bekker’s De betoverde weereld, Bezauberte Welt, which was acquired in 1867. A book in two volumes against superstitious beliefs written by a protestant minister, it had been translated into German only two years after its publication. The number of translations from the Dutch had grown considerably since World War I. However, during the decades after the war, numbers of translations stagnated, only to rise considerably from the early 1980s onwards. The success of translations of Hugo Claus's novel Het verdriet van Belgie and Harry Mulisch's De aanslag has give rise to a great interest in books from the Netherlands and Flanders. The Frankfurt Book Fair of 1993, which featured the Netherlands as guest country, was a great stimulus for translations from the Dutch. Since then, the number of translations from the Dutch is around 500 a year.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Paper Historical Collection

    The KB is one of the few libraries in the world which possess a paper historical collection. The foundations for the paperhistorical collection were laid in 1972 with the acquisition of an extensive private collection, consisting of literature, paper sheets and various forms of documentation. In 1973 a shadow-collection of Japanese paper was acquired from the Museum of Mankind (Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde) at Leiden, much of which belonged to the famous collection of Japanes art of the German physician Ph.F. von Siebold. In 1975, a collection of western decorated paper of the Amsterdam antiquarian bookseller S. Emmering was bought. Two years later, the important collection of decorated paper from the East and the West of G. Dessauer (Düsseldorf) could be acquired. The Dessauer collection also numbers various monster books, albums with several thousands of mounted samples of decorated paper, often numbered and sorted by type, which show the assortment of the former Buntpapierfabrik Aschaffenburg. Apart from this there are several interesting manuscripts with recipes for the production of various kinds of decorated paper.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Illegal Editions Collection

    During the Second World War, some 1000 illegal publications appeared in the Netherlands. The books are mainly belletristic in character, but there are also politically engaged works among them. They are further characterized by the use of good paper, illustrations, appealing texts from home and abroad and from the past and present. Because of the restrictions imposed on publishing by the Nazis the major part of the books were published in limited editions and under difficult circumstances.
    The Koninklijke Bibliotheek aims at a representative if not complete collection of these works. Some 650 of the 1019 titles in De Jong are now in the collection.

  • National Library of the Netherlands: Chess and Draughts Collection

    The chess and draughts collection consists of ca. 30.000 titles. The joining of the collections of Van der Linde and Niemeijer made the Bibliotheca Van der Linde-Niemeijeriana the second largest public chess collection in the world. Meinder Niemeijer (1902-1987), managing director of an insurance company and composer of chess problems, began collecting chess books at the age of 22. Through his numerous international contacts he could acquire rare publications in various languages. This explains the vast amount of Eastern European titles and books from the former Soviet Union in the collection. In 1956 the draughts historian K.W. Kruijswijk enriched the Bibliotheca Van der Linde-Niemeijeriana with the draughts library of 500 titles from G.L. Gortmans (1894-1956). Many draughts enthousiasts followed, and donated books on draughts and checkers to the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, making it the largest draughts collection in the world.